Researchers collaborate as part of a team focused on improving vaccines for malaria, HIV and tuberculosis. Working across disease areas allows us to identify the public goods that can accelerate global health impact and reduce the threat of epidemics. We believe technical innovation has a critical role to play in the design, development, and deployment of these public goods. We invest in deep technical expertise and novel platforms in vaccine development and manufacturing to accelerate innovation for better, faster, and cheaper vaccines.
We also invest in building high-quality modeling and forecasting capabilities informed by trustworthy primary data. We make this information public to allow all experts to better prioritize our collective global health resources.
Vaccines are some of our most powerful tools in combating diseases. Yet despite substantial scientific advances and investment, bringing vaccines to market affordably and reliably remains a challenge. Promising candidates can fail late in development, and existing vaccines can face supply shortages, resulting in wasted time, investments, and missed opportunities to improve human health.
The diseases of low-resource settings—whether they are entrenched, like malaria and HIV, or they are the next outbreak pathogen—are often some of the hardest to address scientifically. They are also often the least attractive commercially. These challenges mean vaccine development for low-resource settings will only be successful if we use innovation in technologies, platforms, processes, and business models to accelerate timelines and reduce costs.
Because developing new vaccines is a lengthy and expensive undertaking, it is particularly important that we understand how to prioritize our efforts. Some diseases lend themselves to vaccine intervention. Others, like the neglected tropical diseases, are best tackled through better deployment of existing interventions.
And others, like noncommunicable diseases, require non-vaccine approaches. Unfortunately, because the quality of our primary data is so poor, it is difficult to answer questions such as how many deaths a malaria vaccine could prevent. Parents who experience the tragedy of losing a child may never know the true cause of death. The mystery behind these individual tragedies are then accumulated into a public health conundrum, making it impossible for product developers, governments, and funders to effectively prioritize the resources of global and public health.
We believe we can accelerate the impact of vaccines in low-resource contexts by cultivating deep expertise in the vaccine-manufacturing process, quality control, and clinical evaluation.By Jon Rappoport. There has never been a greater opportunity to deploy one vaccine against so many people. Putting that aside for the moment, could the vaccine serve another purpose?
In this article, I raise questions. From lexico. Are researchers interested in marrying nanotechnology and vaccines? Nano Comes to Life: Ho This is due to recent advances in chemical and biological engineering, which allow the design of nanoparticles with a precise control over the size, shape, functionality and surface properties, leading to enhanced antigen presentation and strong immunogenicity.
There can be no doubt that nanotechnology is, indeed, very much involved in cutting-edge vaccine research.
TWO: And from those ops centers, data—including instructions—would be sent back to the nano-sensors, which would impose those instructions on the brain and body. If this seems impossible, consider nanotech research aimed at improving the use of prosthetics.
The question is: how far along the road of development is this technology? I can only say we are seeing the public published face of nanotech. What lies behind it, in secret research, is a matter for estimation and speculation. Same basic feelings, same impulses—shared. Smart Cities: Introduc Who would be interested in such a program? Think Rockefeller medical researchers.
Think technocracy and Brave New World. If so, what can these particles actually do? These are pressing questions that need to be answered. I offer two backgrounders I wrote several months ago. They involve the flood of highly significant scientific research across borders. Once upon a time, they called it espionage. A cutting-edge technology, which has applications for weaponry, transportation, medicine, artificial intelligence, surveillance, mind control…is being openly shared between the US and China.
And by implication, who knows how many other nations? As just one example, tiny sensors would, up the road, be placed inside the human body.One of the programs recently funded by the foundation is a sterilization program that would use sharp blasts of ultrasound directed against a man's scrotum to render him infertile for six months.
It might accurately be called a "temporary castration" technology. Now, the foundation has funded a new "sweat-triggered vaccine delivery" program based on nanoparticles penetrating human skin. The technology is describes as a way to " These are both part of the Gates Foundation's involvement in the "Grand Challenges Explorations" program which claims to be working to "achieve major breakthroughs in global health.
These nanoparticles could be used in a spray mist that's sprayed on to every person who walks through an airport security checkpoint, for example. Or it could be unleashed through the ventilation systems of corporate office buildings or public schools to vaccinate the masses. You wouldn't even know you were being vaccinated. This technology is potentially very dangerous to your health freedom. Using it, governments or drug companies which are all the same thing these days could create a vaccine skin cream that's handed out and described as "sunscreen.
A history of covert mass medication But why would the government medicate people without their knowledge or consent, you ask? They already do it with water fluoridation. Fluoride is a drug, and regional and national governments all over the world are using the water supply as a way to deliver the fluoride drug to people whether they need it or not -- and without any proper medical diagnosis or prescription.
So if governments are already covertly medicating people with fluoride in the water supply, they've set the stage mass-vaccinating people through similar channels, such as the air supply in buildings.
And thanks to Bill Gates, this nanotechnology needed to pull this off is now being funded. Is this really a "major breakthrough in global health? Western medicine is so offensive to rational people that it can't even operate out in the open. That's why it resorts to covert contamination of the water supply in order to force the public to swallow its drugs.
Fluoride and covert medicine Oh, by the way, to anyone who argues that fluoride is not a drug, remember this: According to the FDA, any chemical substance that has a biological effect on the human body is, by definition, a drug. Therefore fluoride is a drug, too. Even more, fluoride is promoted with outlandish claims about "preventing cavities" by swallowing it, making it an "unapproved drug" according to the FDA.
So how is it that this unapproved drug can be dripped into the water supply and forced upon hundreds of millions of people without a single diagnosis of fluoride deficiency or even a single prescription from a doctor? The answer is that western medicine is so arrogant that it does not believe it needs to follow any rules, regulations or laws. It is a system of "bully" medicine where drugs are shoved down your throat by being covertly dripped into the water supply without your consent.
So why should we believe vaccines will be any different?
If mainstream medicine can find a way to force every person to unknowingly be injected with vaccines, make no mistake they will pursue it! And such efforts will no doubt have the continued financial support of Bill Gates.Receive a convenient email notification whenever a new Nanowerk Nanotechnology Spotlight posts. Become a Spotlight guest author! Have you just published a scientific paper or have other exciting developments to share with the nanotechnology community?
Here is how to publish on nanowerk. In a previous Nanowerk Spotlight we covered nanotechnology-based approaches to testing for COVID infections in high-risk individuals. Today we look at the role of nanotechnology in countering the conventional limitations of antiviral and biological therapeutics.
Nanocarriers also have potential to design risk-free and effective immunization strategies for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates such as protein constructs and nucleic acids. Some strategies are also proposed for the rational development of this nanomedicine approach and its clinical translation. The authors first describe in great detail the current state of knowledge about the virus's life cycle, pathophysiology and structure, and then address the organ systems primarily affected by SARS-CoV-2 it affects the respiratory system first and then spreads systemically to the heart, liver and kidney.
Developing SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics Today there is no exclusive antiviral treatment against SARS-CoV-2 although therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to deal with existing and potentially upcoming coronavirus infections are under development in research laboratories worldwide. Using recently available genetic information and protein structure modelling, several therapeutic strategies based on drug repurposing are projected for the immediate treatment of infected patients.
According to the authors, target identification to halt the pathogenesis of the viral infection holds the key in this development: "Viral protease 3CLpro and PLprohost cell produced protease TMPRSS2RNA polymerase RdRpinteraction site of viral S protein with host receptor ACE2 are among the major targets identified for repurposing already existing antiviral molecules and new small molecules under development.
Developing a vaccine against COVID Massive efforts are being employed across the world to develop safe and effective vaccines and several vaccine candidates see Table 1 in the review for details have already made it to human clinical trials as a result of fast-tracked development strategies and advanced vaccine technological platforms read more here in The New England Journal of Medicine : "Developing Covid Vaccines at Pandemic Speed".
Similar to what researchers are doing in developing SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics, the target strategy for most of the vaccine candidates is to induce nAbs against the viral S protein, averting the ACE2 mediated host uptake. In the case of SARS-CoV vaccine development, higher nAbs titers and better protection was reported with S protein subunit vaccines when compared to any other target strategy. The development of COVID vaccine candidates are relying on several high-tech platforms including attenuated and inactivated viruses, replicating and non replicating viral vectors, DNA and mRNA, virus-like particles and recombinant protein-based approaches.
The role of nanotechnology The COVID crisis also demands an urgent analysis of all the available nanotechnology tools. While nanomedicine strategies are in use for the design of the vaccine carriers, there are not enough other nanotechnology approaches being explored to tackle the current outbreak. The authors make an effort to systematically present the current status of nanotechnology use in therapeutics and vaccine development.
They note that therapeutic development and challenges against SARSCoV-2 infection are not so different from other infectious diseases as well as oncology research. Hence, they write, it is worth revisiting these closely related therapeutic and vaccine strategies and associated nanotechnologies use in order to design 'repurposed nanotechnology' to fast-track the current research.
Reprinted with permission by American Chemical Society click on image to enlarge In their review, the authors discuss in great detail the individual aspects as depicted in the illustration above. They also point out that the scope of nanotechnology for COVID therapeutics and vaccine research is not limited to conventional therapeutic and vaccine designs.
Several other approaches including advanced nanomaterial and biomimetic approaches represent promising opportunities in a COVID like outbreak. Summing up their review, the authors conclude that nanotechnology tools can play a pivotal role in advancing COVID treatment and vaccine development and that information related to the structural morphology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its pathophysiology and related immunological response is vital for nanotechnology scientists.One of the biggest challenges the world faces today is the defeat of Covid Nanotechnology is being applied to the creation of coronavirus vaccines, improved protective masks, stronger disinfectants, and better diagnostic methods.
This page provides examples of the research underway and the promise of nanotechnology in this field. A few of the methods discussed have reached the pre-clinical or clinical trial stage and a few applications are ready now.
To find out how nanotechnology is fighting Covid, click any of the links below for more information. Researchers at the Queensland University of Technology have shown that a filter made with cellulose nanofibers can block virus size particles.
They believe the filters can be made inexpensively and in high volume as would be needed for single use filter cartridges. Researchers are using gold nanoparticles to make probes that attach to Covid RNA. They are developing testing equipment using these probes that they believe will produce fast turn-around testing with low error rate.
Researchers at Northwestern University and MIT are working on using nanostructures to deliver peptide molecules to Covid virus molecules. The peptide molecules may be able to bond to the Covid spike protein, therefore disabling the virus molecule. However peptide molecules don't survive long in the bloodstream, so the peptide molecules will be carried by the nanostructures. Researchers at the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology are using a nano-interferometric biosensor to develop a point of use testing device for Covid Sona Nanotech is developing a diagnostic test for Covid using gold nanorods.
The test is expected to provide results in about 5 to 15 minutes and not require lab analysis. Moderna is conducting a Phase 1 clinical trail of a vaccine using mRNA molecules that are encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles.
Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology have developed a filter mask using orthogonal nanofibers which they report is equilivant to the N95 masks needed for the coronavirus, with the advantage that the mask can filter small particles even after being washed several times.
Novavax has developed a coronavirus vaccine candidate using protein nanoparticles and is planning a Phase 1 clinical trial to start in mid-May. Mologic is developing and testing a hand held, nanoparticle based, diagnostic system for Covid that is intended to provide results at the point of use, rather than waiting for lab results.
Some organizations are applying a coating of titanium dioxide nanocrystals on surfaces such as wall and ceilings to reduce the spread of the coronavirus. When the surface is illuminated with VU light the nanocrystals act as a photocatalytic disinfection system, helping kill virus on the surface.
Researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology have developed a test for Covid that doesn't require reagents which are in limited supply. The test uses silica coated magnetic nanoparticles. RNA from the virus is attracted to the nanoparicles, which are then extracted from the sample with a magnetic field. Mammoth Biosciences has developed a test for Covid using CRSIPR dianostic techniques which give results in 45 minutes without needing to send the sample to a lab.
The first study published with this test reports accuracy similar to lab test results. Nanotechnology Now.
Nanotechnology vs. Covid-19
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What is Nanotechnology? Covid Could nano make the difference?Researchers around the world are developing more than vaccines against the coronavirus, and 23 vaccines are in human trials. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine by next year.
The first vaccine safety trials in humans started in March, but the road ahead remains uncertain. Some trials will fail, and others may end without a clear result. But a few may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against the virus.
Here is the status of all the vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with a selection of promising vaccines still being tested in cells or animals. July July 7. The development cycle of a vaccine, from lab to clinic. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus. During a pandemic, a vaccine may receive emergency use authorization before getting formal approval.
We will update the tracker and label the Warp Speed projects when there is an official announcement. Phase III trials are set to begin July 27, and the company hopes to have vaccine doses ready by early Updated July Based on the results so far, the F.
If approved, Pfizer said they expect to manufacture up to million doses of the vaccine by the end of this year, and potentially more than 1. The researchers expect to know if the vaccine is effective by the end of the year. On July 3 they announced approval to start human trials, becoming the second company in India to enter the Covid vaccine race after Bharat Biotech.
Updated July 3. Updated July 2. They found no serious adverse effects, and measured an immune response in 34 out of 36 volunteers.
The company said its German facility can make hundreds of millions of vaccine doses a year. Updated June They anticipate moving to Phase II trials in the fall.
Microchips Inserted via Vaccine Would Be a Terrible Way to Track People
Earlier studies on monkeys reportedly showed protective effects. On June 23, they announced they were planning Phase I trials in the fall. Vaccines that use a virus to deliver coronavirus genes into cells and provoke an immune response. The project may deliver emergency vaccines by October. In June, AstraZeneca said their total manufacturing capacity stands at two billion doses. In May, they published promising results from a Phase I safety trial. It is a combination of two adenoviruses, Ad5 and Ad26, both engineered with a coronavirus gene.
A virus called an adeno-associated virus delivers coronavirus gene fragments into cells. Phase I trials are set to begin in late Brazilian and European researchers have demonstrated exactly how a nanotechnology-based compound delivers an oral vaccine against hepatitis B to the immune system.
When particles containing silica and an antigen combine, even though they are different sizes, they reach the intestine without being destroyed by the acidity of the digestive system. The results are published in Scientific Reports. The aim of the study was to understand how a nanometer-sized antigen binds to silica nanotubes with a diameter of approximately 10 nanometers and a honeycomb-like structure.
One nanometer 1 nm is a billionth of a meter. Studies carried out at USP revealed the measurements of both the antigen and the silica nanotubes using small-angle X-ray scattering SAXSdynamic light scattering DLSand transmission electron microscope. In collaboration with other researchers in Denmark as well as colleagues in France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland, Bordalo submitted the compound to small-angle X-ray scattering SAXSamong other techniques. The three-dimensional images obtained by these techniques showed that although the antigen did not enter the nanotubes, it was retained in 50 nm macropores between the nanotubes.
This protected it from the acidity of the digestive system. The images also enabled the researchers to determine the ideal proportion of silica and HBsAg so that the antigen did not agglomerate, hindering the dispersion of the active principle in the patient's intestine.Nanovaccine Initiative
Nature is the best vaccination agent. However, a vaccine that contains a protein, as in this case, is destroyed by high acidity and its own proteases in passing through the stomach, so it doesn't reach the immune system, particularly the small intestine," said Osvaldo Augusto Sant"Anna, Scientific Leader at Butantan Institute and responsible for development of the HbsAg antigen. Before proceeding to clinical trialsthe team will test polymers that can be used to coat the entire structure and increase the medication's resistance to the human stomach.
In animal trials, the formulation proved to be as effective as the injected vaccine, if not more so, in delivering the antigen to the intestine, where the immune system can detect it and produce antibodies against the virus.
Nanoparticles and Vaccine Development
The idea is to have at least a triple vaccine by adding other antigens against diphtheria and tetanus. However, the formulation may evolve to become a polyvaccine that also immunizes people against whooping cough, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type B Hibthe bacterium that causes meningitis and pneumonia, among other diseases.
The antigens must combat the diseases without interfering with each other. Explore further. More from Biology and Medical. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors.
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